The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme system consists of a large family of proteins, which are involved in the synthesis and/or degradation of a vast number of endogenous compounds such as steroids, cholesterol, vitamins, and retinoic acid, as well as the metabolism of exogenous toxins. Cytochrome P450 enzymes can alter, abolish, or enhance drug metabolism. Genotyping or phenotyping can now be recommended as a complement to plasma concentration determination when aberrant metabolic capacity (poor or ultrarapid) of CYP2D6 substrates is suspected. The current rapid developments in molecular genetic methodology are expected to provide new tools for prediction of the activity of the various drug-metabolizing enzymes. Because cytochrome P450s play key roles in regulating important physiological processes, they are also attractive targets for drug discovery. Inhibitors of P450 enzymes are used clinically or are under evaluation for treatment of a number of diseases. AmpliChip CYP450 microarray (Roche Diagnostics) is commercially available for identification of polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and CYP2C19.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.