D

pic, etx pic, etx, cpb2 pic, etx, cpe, cpb2 pic, etx, cpe

Enterotoxemia (goats, sheep, etc.)

pic, iap/ibp, cpee, cpb2

Enterotoxemia (calves, rabbits, etc)

plc = alpha toxin; cpe = C. perfringens enterotoxin; cpb2 = C. perfringens beta2 toxin; cpb = C. perfringens beta toxin.

etx=epsilon toxin; iap and ibp = iota toxin A and B fragments, respectively.

aDiseases listed are inclusive of the toxinotype and are not shown linked to specific genotypes.

bGenes encoding these toxins are located on large virulence plasmids (cpe can be found on either the chromosome or on a plasmid). cLinked to cpe-chromosomal isolates. dLinked to cpe-plasmid isolates. eSilent cpe gene.

of C. perfringens. This PCR assay has largely replaced the demanding classical C. perfringens typing procedure, which depended on antibody neutralization of toxins in C. perfringens culture supernatants. The most recent bP A A/cpe B C D E

Fig. 1 Multiplex PCR toxinotyping assay for determining the toxin genotype of C. perfringens isolates. Representative toxinotypes are located at the top of the gel and the toxin genes amplified are listed on the right of the gel. Primers and PCR conditions were from Ref. [11]. PCR products were separated on a 2% agarose gel and visualized with ethidium bromide staining.

Fig. 1 Multiplex PCR toxinotyping assay for determining the toxin genotype of C. perfringens isolates. Representative toxinotypes are located at the top of the gel and the toxin genes amplified are listed on the right of the gel. Primers and PCR conditions were from Ref. [11]. PCR products were separated on a 2% agarose gel and visualized with ethidium bromide staining.

version of the multiplex PCR typing assay amplifies different size products from the genes encoding CPE, as well as a-toxin, p-toxin, e-toxin, p2-toxin, and t-toxin (Fig. 1).[11] This method is effective using either purified DNA or colony lysates as template. However, care must be taken in using this multiplex PCR for diagnosis, as amplification of a toxin gene does not necessarily correlate with expression of that toxin.[8]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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