Description Of Technology

Common features for all variations on this technology are the following:

• Large numbers of distinct probes are bound to a substrate in a gridded layout on a solid substrate.

• The level of abundance of each test analyte (target) can be assessed by the amount of labeled analyte specifically bound to its cognate probe on the surface of the chip.

• In general, target sample materials are labeled (there are direct and indirect methods), but in some cases the probe may contain the label.

• One target sample is labeled and assayed against one array, or two target samples are differently labeled and assayed against one array.

• After hybridization or other interaction, arrays are scanned to obtain images showing the amount of bound, labeled material for each probe on the array.

• Array images are subjected to image processing algorithms, which convert them to numerical signal levels for each probe.

• Signal correction and systematic adjustments (normalization algorithms) for nonbiological effects are performed before data analysis.

• Basic analysis of these data provides absent/present calls, semiquantitative levels of abundance or expression, and differential abundance or regulation between different experimental conditions.

Figure 1 shows a typical workflow for a cDNA microarray experiment, and Fig. 2 the most relevant differences when using protein microarrays.[1] A good overview can be found in Ref. [2].

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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