Detection in the Environment

Intense research effort is ongoing to develop sensitive methods of detection of C. parvum (C. hominis) in environmental waters and raw and finished water in treatment facilities. Microscopy using IF is the standard used for detection of oocysts in the environment. However, numerous novel methods are being developed to provide rapid, sensitive, and automated detection. Some detection methods are antibody-based, e.g., flow cytometry, quantum dots immunofluorescent detection, and chemiluminescent immunoassays. Other methods are molecular-based[1] (Table 2). One major obstacle in monitoring water is the poor recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts from the large volumes of water (> 10 L) necessary for detection.[7] Another obstacle is that these complex samples contain numerous substances with potential to inhibit molecular-based assays and inhibitors vary with different sample types.[21] Appropriate adaptation of the DNA extraction method allows sensitive quantification of pathogens using assays such as qPCR in complex samples, e.g., raw sewage.[21] New technologies in development, such as electrorotation[22] for detection of live cells and DNA hybridization bio-sensors,[23] have the potential for extremely rapid screening of low numbers of C. parvum and may be the future in detection systems.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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