Developments And Challenges

There are a number of future key areas for this technology, some of which involve the maturing of this technology, and others that will likely lead to entirely new applications and discovery. Below are brief outlines for some of these developments.

System-level understanding is of course the ultimate goal, and requires building an understanding of how biological processes work from the molecular to organism level, and how changing factors (e.g., drugs) in the process may affect key pathway processes. Both DNA and protein microarrays provide only partial information, and there is a distinct need for a greater level of data integration.[20] This must combine data from various biological techniques, clinical data, and demographic data, as well as make better use of existing data of the same type, i.e., microarray data and gene/protein annotation data. The means to facilitate this are better databases and ontologies}21 allowing one to directly link and analyze data from multiple formats and sources. GRID technology (sometimes referred to as ''Internet Version 2'') may be the technological base to accomplish this by providing data exchange formats and the required software and hardware architecture.

Microarray technology will also move further toward miniaturization, and ''nanoarrays'' for the detection of single molecules are a possibility, as are the deposition of entire genomes on smaller surface areas or the deposition of multiple probe/target combinations on one array substrate.

Irrespective of the substrate dimensions, there has also been a move toward using arrays for very specialized applications, such as the detection of splice variants or the fabrication of diagnostic chips containing only probes relevant for disease patterns, or selective neurological chips.

The current state of hybridize-now-analyze-later could soon be superseded by real-time platforms, which allow simultaneous hybridization events and data readout from the chip, which is closely coupled with conventional microelectronics. These platforms will be closer to point-of-care applications than current microarrays. They will almost certainly not rely on microscopy slides as substrates, but incorporate etched/channeled patterns in materials with different properties. Despite these differences, they will still share purpose and gridlike layout with the current technology, and are likely to have a large impact in chip-based medicine of the future.

A further drive is toward more elaborate and good-quality protein arrays, which requires improvements in purification methods, spatial orientation on a substrate, and substrate adherence.[22,23] This is being researched, and protein arrays are getting ever closer to the level of comprehensiveness achieved by DNA microarrays, although they themselves are not faultless.

Independent of the technology used, methods of statistical and exploratory analysis are continuously being expanded, creating more powerful and, importantly, more robust results for biological interpretation. Machine learning, genetic networks, Bayesian methods, artificial intelligence, and other established mathematical approaches of analysis and data mining are being investigated for use in microarray research.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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