Astroviruses were first detected by negative stain electron microscopy (Fig. 1), but the characteristic star-shaped capsid is found in only 10% of the viral particles in fecal samples. It is now clear that electron microscopy is less sensitive than antigen detection or RT-PCR.

An antigen-capture ELISA was developed in 1990.[31] The lower limits of detection sensitivity of such an ELISA are estimated to be 105 to 106 particles per gram. A commercial kit version of this is available which can

Table 1 Primers for RT-PCR detection and genotyping Astrovirus





Mon 340 Mon 348


Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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