Direct Sequencing

The gold standard remains the complete sequencing information of HLA alleles. In routine practice, usually only the most polymorphic exons are sequenced: exon 2 (270 bp) for class II, and exons 2+3 (540 bp) for class I genes. A number of sequencing protocols have been published so far (e.g., Ref. [13]). These are based either on locus-specific PCR and sequencing of both alleles at once, which is faster but implies possible ambiguities in sequence interpretation, or on group-specific PCR that allows to separate the alleles, which is more time-consuming but avoids ambiguities. Protocols validated through the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop are available at the following web site: http://

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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