Discovery And Impact Of C Difficile

C. difficile is an anaerobic, spore-forming, gram-positive rod. This bacterial species owes its name to the difficult circumstances of its first isolation in 1935 from the intestinal flora of healthy neonates.[1] In the laboratory conditions of those days, its slow growth and requirement for culture under anaerobic atmosphere posed some difficulties now essentially resolved by modern techniques developed for the cultivation of anaerobes. Colonization most likely occurs by fecal-oral transmission, and ingested spores of C. difficile can survive the passage through gastric acid and germinate into the colon. In the preantibiotic era, pseudomembranous colitis was a rare complication of intraabdominal surgery.[2] However, this life-threatening condition became more frequent with the increased use of antibiotics and, in 1978, C. difficile was identified as the etiologic agent of pseudomembranous colitis.[3] This bacterium is now recognized as the cause of approximately 20% of all cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. C. difficile-associated disease can produce symptoms ranging from mild nuisance diarrhea to fulminant colitis.[2] It has been calculated that patients acquiring this disease during their hospitalization stay >50% longer than the adjusted length of stay for a typical patient whose course was not complicated by C. difficile diarrhea.[4] This increases cost by $3669 per infected patient. These authors estimated that the annual cost for treating C. difficile diarrhea in the United States exceeds $1.1 billion for hospital care only. Morbidity and mortality associated with C. difficile diarrhea are high and reflect the generally poor health of patients at higher risk of acquiring this infection.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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