Disposable Dna Biosensors Based On Pencil Graphite Electrodes

Thus these low-cost and easy-to-prepare PGEs have been the ideal choice for several electrochemical DNA biosensor reports. An electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection of the Factor V Leiden single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons using the oxidation signal of colloidal gold (Au) was described by Ozsoz et al.[16] A pencil graphite electrode (PGE) modified with target DNA (Fig. 1A), when hybridized with complementary probes conjugated to Au nanoparticles, responded with the appearance of Au oxide wave at ~ +1.20 V (Fig. 1B).

The discrimination against homozygous and heterozygous genotypes has become possible by using specific oligonucleotides, which are full complementary to either wild-type (WT) or mutant (MT) real samples. When the WT probe, which had a complementary DNA base sequence to the WT target, was immobilized on Au nanoparticles, a high Au oxidation signal (Fig. 2a) showed

Covalent attachment of target DNA

Covalent attachment of target DNA

1.30 POTENTIAL (V)

Fig. 1 Detection of hybridization using Au nanoparticle-modified probes. (A) Covalent attachment of target DNA onto pencil graphite electrode (PGE); (B) Au oxide signal appears after hybridization with the complementary Au nanoparticle-conjugated probe.

POTENTIAL ( Hybridization with Au nanoparticle-modified probe

1.30 POTENTIAL (V)

Fig. 1 Detection of hybridization using Au nanoparticle-modified probes. (A) Covalent attachment of target DNA onto pencil graphite electrode (PGE); (B) Au oxide signal appears after hybridization with the complementary Au nanoparticle-conjugated probe.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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