Ecology Of Mvev

The virus is maintained in a cycle involving water birds and mosquitoes (primarily Culex annulirostris) in enzootic foci within the north of WA and adjacent area of the northern half of the Northern Territory (NT).[9] Surveillance using sentinel chicken flocks has demonstrated MVE activity during the tropical wet season (February to July) in these areas in most years.[9] There is some evidence to suggest that the incidence of MVEV has increased in recent years which may be associated with dam building on the Ord River in the Kimberley region and the establishment of large water impoundments.[10]

Activity outside the enzootic areas follows heavy rainfall and flooding, although not invariably, indicating that other factors are also important.[11] When spread occurs, infected migratory water birds or possibly windblown infected mosquitoes carry the virus into the flooded areas and set up local epizootic mosquito-bird cycles of infection.[12] A subsidiary mechanism for generating epizootic activity is reactivation of vertically transmitted MVEV that survives in desiccation-resistant eggs of species such as Ochleratus tremulus (formerly called Aedes tremulus).[13] Spread can be extensive and lead to introduction or reintroduction of MVE into normally arid areas further south in WA or in Central Australia.[3,13] This mechanism is believed to have been the source of the epidemics that occurred in the heavily populated areas of southeastern Australia in 1974,[14] and

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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