Specificity of probe/target hybridization is a crucial factor determining efficiency of most nucleic acid-based methods used in diagnostics and biotechnology. Hybridization specificity is determined as a match-versus-mismatch discrimination: binding to sites that differ from the perfectly complementary sequences even by a single base pair substitution is characterized by a substantial free-energy penalty. If the free-energy penalty is high enough, a set of conditions (so-called stringency conditions) can be found where perfect complexes will be considerably more stable than the complexes containing mismatches.
Stem-loop DNA probes are single-stranded oligonu-cleotides containing a sequence complementary to the target that is flanked by self-complementary target-unrelated termini. Thermodynamic analysis of hybridization characteristics of linear and stem-loop DNA probes proved that it is a general feature of structurally constrained probes to distinguish mismatches over a larger range of temperatures or other experimental parameters comparing to unstructured probes.[2,3] Thus, stem-loop DNA probes allow for a wider window of stringency conditions, which provide better match/ mismatch discrimination.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.