Examples Of Personalized Therapies

There are numerous examples where currently available genomic technologies are applied to individualize the treatment to patients who are likely to benefit from a

Table 2 Role of bioinformatics in the development of personalized medicine

Role of bioinformatics in molecular diagnostics as applied to personalized medicine

Analysis and classification of gene expression profiles Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms Computational diagnostics

Diagnosis of subtype of a disease to select the probability of success of optimal treatment Genetic screening Role of bioinformatics in pharmacogenomics Genotyping for stratification of clinical trials Selection of targets in pharmacogenomics-based drug discovery Use of pharmacogenomic data to develop rational therapies Role of bioinformatics in pharmacogenetics

Analysis of the role of polymorphisms in interindividual variations in drug response

Use of computational tools for predicting drug metabolism, toxicity, and efficacy

Integration of pharmacogenetic data with clinical outcomes to facilitate diagnosis

Linking of pharmacogenetic data to literature on adverse reactions and drug-drug interactions Role of bioinformatics in pharmacoproteomics Analysis of data from protein microarrays Measurement of protein expression Use of search engines for proteomic databases

Source: From Jain, K.K. Personalized Medicine. Jain PharmaBiotech Publications, Basel, 2004.

Table 3 Examples of personalized therapies Approach to therapy

Genotyping as a guide to therapy for AIDS

Autologous cell vaccine is prepared from the patient's tumor and is injected back into the patient

HER-2 gene amplification and overexpression in breast cancer and can be detected by HER-2 breast test (Vysis' PathVysion)

A validated test that can identify a subgroup of hypertensive patients that should be treated with ACE-inhibitors as first line of treatment certain therapy. There are many potential applications in cancer, genetic disorders, and infections. A few examples are shown briefly in Table 3.

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