There are numerous examples where currently available genomic technologies are applied to individualize the treatment to patients who are likely to benefit from a
Table 2 Role of bioinformatics in the development of personalized medicine
Role of bioinformatics in molecular diagnostics as applied to personalized medicine
Analysis and classification of gene expression profiles Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms Computational diagnostics
Diagnosis of subtype of a disease to select the probability of success of optimal treatment Genetic screening Role of bioinformatics in pharmacogenomics Genotyping for stratification of clinical trials Selection of targets in pharmacogenomics-based drug discovery Use of pharmacogenomic data to develop rational therapies Role of bioinformatics in pharmacogenetics
Analysis of the role of polymorphisms in interindividual variations in drug response
Use of computational tools for predicting drug metabolism, toxicity, and efficacy
Integration of pharmacogenetic data with clinical outcomes to facilitate diagnosis
Linking of pharmacogenetic data to literature on adverse reactions and drug-drug interactions Role of bioinformatics in pharmacoproteomics Analysis of data from protein microarrays Measurement of protein expression Use of search engines for proteomic databases
Source: From Jain, K.K. Personalized Medicine. Jain PharmaBiotech Publications, Basel, 2004.
Table 3 Examples of personalized therapies Approach to therapy
Genotyping as a guide to therapy for AIDS
Autologous cell vaccine is prepared from the patient's tumor and is injected back into the patient
HER-2 gene amplification and overexpression in breast cancer and can be detected by HER-2 breast test (Vysis' PathVysion)
A validated test that can identify a subgroup of hypertensive patients that should be treated with ACE-inhibitors as first line of treatment certain therapy. There are many potential applications in cancer, genetic disorders, and infections. A few examples are shown briefly in Table 3.
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