Different mechanisms for the formation of small SMCs were proposed: trisomic rescue, monosomic rescue, postfertilization errors, and gamete complementation. In addition, speculations that SMCs are due to a transfection of a chromosome derived from a superfluous haploid pronucleus into the zygote are discussed. UPD was reported for the majority of human chromosomes.[4,5] Therefore, in case of identification and characterization of small SMCs, an exclusion of UPD possibly present in the two normal sister chromosomes by molecular genetic methods is reasonable (e.g., Refs.  and ).
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.