Fiber Optic Sensors

Fiber-optic biosensors use total internal reflectance to measure fluorescent-labeled targets captured at the glass fiber surface. Fibers have been configured for use in large or small clusters. Large clusters of ~6000 fibers are used in an array format with probe-coated beads seated at the tip of each fiber (Illumina, San Diego, CA.). With this system, Epstein and colleagues[12] showed that zeptomole levels of fluoroscene-labeled 21-mer containing the cystic fibrosis F508C mutation could be identified within an hour (0.1 fM in 10 mL). Small 4-fiber) clusters are individually coated with probes. Using 19-mer probes, this configuration was used to distinguish between two gene mutations associated with spinal muscular atrophy using Cy5-labeled 202-bp PCR products amplified from patient samples. When a time-derivative of the signal was applied, the difference was identified in less than 2 min.[13]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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