Yellow fever is usually detected using a universal fla-vivirus PCR (Table 4, PCR 1-8). Most of these universal assays target the NS5 which is highly conserved among the Flavivirus genus. Data on clinical sensitivity of these assays for yellow fever are largely lacking. Only few yellow fever virus-specific PCR tests have been published (Table 4, PCR 9-11). A quantitative real-time PCR

specific for yellow fever virus exists, and in two cases, the viral RNA concentration in serum has been determined by this assay.[6,35] It was 2 x 102-fold and 1 x 103-fold above the PCR detection limit. Therefore, yellow fever may be reliably diagnosed by PCR, but virus isolation and serology must be performed in parallel.

Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is rare compared with dengue fever (DF) and is almost exclusively seen in endemic areas. The molecular diagnosis of dengue infection has been extensively reviewed elsewhere.[36,37] Noteworthy are recently developed real-time PCR assays, which either detect all dengue virus subtypes[6] or differentiate between the four subtypes.[38-40] Because dengue virus is rapidly cleared during infection, DF and DHF are usually diagnosed by detection of specific IgM (m-capture EIA), which may be complemented by PCR and virus isolation. In a few imported cases of dengue

Table 4 Flavivirus PCR
Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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