Forensic Toxicology

Forensic toxicology is defined as the study of the adverse effects of poisons on living organisms in relation to the law. Indeed, the most common poisons in today's society are drugs of abuse, controlled under different countries legislations, and the majority of forensic toxicology is concerned with the detection of such drugs within the blood or urine of a person. The analysis determines whether a controlled substance is present, and if so how much is present. In fatalities the quantity of a controlled substance must be known before a conclusion can be made as to the cause of death. To obtain the amount of drug present in the person at the time of death, a backtracking calculation is carried out. In such a calculation there are issues with the interpretation of the toxicology results. This is because one dose may be at a level that is therapeutic to one person but lethal to another. The interindividual differences in response to a drug are due to interindividual differences in drug metabolism, which in turn is a result of genetic polymorphisms in the production of drug receptors and drug transporters. A well-characterized genetic polymorphism occurs within the cytochrome-p450 system where there are subfamilies of isoenzymes including CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4.[17] Slow, medium and fast metabolizers are the result of the production of different isoenzymes, which is under a genetic control. Single nucleotide polymorphisms to the gene system for the different metabolic systems would allow determination of whether the person had a slow metabolism, hence death resulting in a quantity of drug that would otherwise be therapeutic to a fast metabolizer.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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