Frequency Of Resistance

Generally in S. pneumoniae, parC mutations are observed alone in isolates with low-resistance MICs (ciprofloxacin MIC ~ 4 mg/mL). As the MICs increase, isolates usually have mutations in both parC and gyrA. The presence of resistance mutations (in ParC, GyrA, and ParC and GyrA) and active efflux based on ciprofloxacin MICs is demonstrated in Fig. 1. The most common mutation in ParC is Ser-79-Phe.[1,10] Of all isolates with a ParC

4ug/mL 8ug/mL 16ug/mL 32ug/mL 64ug/mL (n=36) (n=15) (n=9) (n=14) (n=l)

Ciprofloxacin MICs

Fig. 1 Resistance mechanisms, QRDR mutations and efflux, identified in 75 ciprofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae at MICs of 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 mg/mL (number of isolates per MIC). (From Ref. [13].)

mutation, it has been reported that 50-62.5% have the Ser-79-Phe substitution.1-8,10-1 Likewise, Ser-81-Phe represents 69.2-78.6% of all GyrA changes.[8,10]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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