Hemoglobin D

Hemoglobin D-Punjab (HbD-Los Angeles) is common worldwide and is the most frequent abnormal hemoglobin in the Xinjiang region of China. HbD is a p-chain variant (p121 Glu! Gln) resulting from a G! C substitution. The same nucleotide is altered in HbD-Punjab and HbO-Arab (see below). When HbD (or HbO-Arab) is coinherited with HbS, HbS polymerization is facilitated leading to severe sickling.

By IEF, HbD may be difficult to distinguish from other p-globin variants (e.g., HbS) that have similar electro-phoretic mobility or from g-globin variants. HbD is a slow-moving species on cation-exchange HPLC. It elutes soon after HbA2 and may interfere with accurate integration of the HbA2 peak. The presence of HbD can be confirmed either by PCR or direct sequencing.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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