Hemoglobin O

The HbO-Arab substitution is p Glu! Lys that results from a point mutation in the same codon (p121) as the HbD mutation. This amino acid residue is a contact point for hemoglobin polymer formation. As the case for HbD, HbO-Arab is not clinically consequential unless coinherited with HbS. HbO-Arab occurs in North Africa, the Near East, Balkans, and Mediterranean, i.e., the historical extent of the Ottoman Empire, and gene flow may have followed Sudanese contingents in the Ottoman military.

Homozygous HbO-Arab individuals are clinically asymptomatic, but laboratory evaluation will reveal a mild compensated hemolytic anemia. HbO-Arab/HbS compound heterozygotes, often Near Eastern or African-American, have clinical and laboratory manifestations of SCD.

Accurate diagnosis of HbS/HbO-Arab individuals requires electrophoresis at both alkaline and acidic pH; HbO-Arab has similar electrophoretic mobility to HbC,

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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