Historical Introduction

Wilson disease, also referred to as hepatolenticular degeneration, was first described in 1912 by Samuel A. Kinnier Wilson as a familial progressive disorder of the central nervous system accompanied by liver cirrhosis, and by Bruno Fleischer as a ''pseudosclerosis'' with tremor, liver cirrhosis, and corneal deposits.[1,2] One year later, Rumpel demonstrated an excessive hepatic copper accumulation in Wilson disease.[3] This finding was confirmed by Luthy, who also detected an elevated copper concentration in the basal ganglia.[4] An autosomal recessive inheritance pattern was shown by Bearn,[5] and in 1993 the disease-causing gene was identified as a metal-transporting P-type ATPase designated ATP7B.[6-8]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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