History Of Fluoroquinolones

A novel class of antibiotics, quinolones, originated with the discovery of nalidixic acid (actually a naphthyridine) in 1962.[1] Nalidixic acid displayed good activity against gram-negative aerobes; however, its use was limited because it displayed poor activity against gram-positive organisms, demonstrated poor pharmacokinetics, and had numerous adverse affects.[1] Structural alterations of nalidixic acid resulted in the discovery of the fluoroqui-nolones, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, in the 1980s.[1] Norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin displayed a broader spectrum of activity against both gram-negative and gram-positive organisms and were much more potent than their progenitor antibiotics.[1] Improvements have continued to be made to the fluoroquinolone class via the addition of various molecular substituents to the basic quinolone structure. The newer ''respiratory'' fluoroqui-nolones: gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxi-floxacin, and the investigational des-fluoroquinolone garenoxacin, demonstrate enhanced activities against gram-positive organisms such as S. pneumoniae as well as improved pharmacokinetic properties.[1,2]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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