How Is Inventive Step Assessed by the Patent Authorities

The references cited by an examining authority have to be assessed in view of the so-called ''person skilled in the art.'' The skilled person represents an individual who knows all references that have ever been published in any language, but who lacks the creativity in posing and solving objects or problems in a particular technical field. Also, a team of individuals can be addressed as ''person skilled in the art,'' particularly in borderline technical fields.

The question of inventive step is more complicated and ambiguous than the question of novelty. Inventive step considers several issues—e.g., whether the invention uses well-known technologies; whether the invention solves a known problem, only in a different way, via techniques which are known as such or the level of the skill of the artisan.

Inventive step must be proved by the applicant in case the patent examiner or a third party in an opposing procedure raises the issue of lack of inventive step in the invention. An indication of inventive step is an unexpected result proven by comparative examples or improved properties of a new substance. Thus, if a new peptide or protein shows improved properties over the wild-type protein, an inventive step can be acknowledged.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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