Hybridization Conditions

1. Hybridization of short oligonucleotides is usually very fast, requiring milliseconds rather than minutes to occur. Hybridization times prescribed by the protocol reflect the time needed to equilibrate the temperature and concentrations and to assure the uniform contact of hybridization solution with the membrane.

2. Note that for a 500-nucleotide-long amplification, 100 ng of PCR product, typically found in a 10 pL reaction aliquot, corresponds to 0.32 pmol. When applied per single spot, it leads to about 30 pmol of the target DNA on a single 96-spot membrane. Therefore the probe at 50 pM concentration or 1.25 pmol/25 mL is in shortage as compared to the target. Thus, increasing the number of membranes may require an increase in probe concentration, or decrease in the concentration of spotted PCR products to keep background low and signal-to-noise high.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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