Dapi

Fig. 3 Multicolor locus-specific assay for the detection of aberrations in NHL. (A) Interphase nucleus of a healthy donor. (B) Interphase nucleus of a patient with NHL with a IGH-MYC fusion due to t(8;14)(q24;q32). (C) M-FICTION assay in the same patient with NHL identified that the translocation was exclusively in the CD20+ B cells. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

Fig. 3 Multicolor locus-specific assay for the detection of aberrations in NHL. (A) Interphase nucleus of a healthy donor. (B) Interphase nucleus of a patient with NHL with a IGH-MYC fusion due to t(8;14)(q24;q32). (C) M-FICTION assay in the same patient with NHL identified that the translocation was exclusively in the CD20+ B cells. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

50F4 BIO exon 2 TEL11/18 DIG exon 3

50F4 BIO exon 2 TEL11/18 DIG exon 3

148B6 DIG exon 8 *

Fig. 4 Examples of FISH analysis of patients with 12p13 rearrangements showing that the gene ETV6 is involved. (A) Patient with AML-M2 and t(4;12)(q12;p13). The red and green signals both label the normal 12p, whereas the green signal representing the telomeric probe is translocated to the der(4) and the red centromeric probe labels the der(12) chromosome. (B) Simplified representation of this case. (C) Patient with AML-M2 and inv(12)(p13q24). The red and green signals are together on the normal 12p and they are separated on the inv(12) with exon 8 remaining on 12p and exon 1 labeling 12q. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

targeted (Fig. 3). The diagnostic importance of FICTION in leukemias and related neoplasms might take significant advantage from the achievements of high-throughput expression studies using, for example, CHIP technology, which aim to identify mRNAs and proteins differentially expressed in biologic and prognostic subgroups of hematological malignancies. By FICTION, the genetic aberrations and the discriminating proteins identified in expression studies could be detected simultaneously on a single-cell level.[17] Thus FICTION could allow a simultaneous and highly sensitive determination, and even quantification, of diagnostic and prognostic changes in leukemias and related disorders at both DNA and protein level.

FISH and Research resources (CHORI) (http://www.chori.org/bacpac), Research Genetics (http://www.resgen.com/resources/ index.php3), and the Sanger Center (http://www.sanger. ac.uk/Teams/Team63/CloneRequest).

In several studies, FISH is used in conjunction with G-banding for the accurate location of chromosomal breakpoints, which, in many instances, represents a first step toward the identification of novel tumor-related genes.[18'19] The FISH technique, together with molecular methods, has permitted the cloning of novel oncogenes involved in the pathogenesis of leukemias and lymphomas (Fig. 4). Besides, the subsequent establishment of FISH assays screening the chromosomal abnormalities in the regions of interest has revealed additional cases harboring the same or variant changes.

The Human Genome Project has stimulated other exciting applications of FISH and multicolor FISH, providing information about sequence-tagged clones placed on NCBI contigs. The BAC Resource Consortium has been working in connecting the cytogenetic and sequence maps of the human genome. This integration has been accomplished by FISH-mapping bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones that contain one or more unique sequence tags. The sequence tags allow each BAC to be positioned on the emerging draft sequence of the human genome. More than 8000 clones have been mapped to date, resulting in at least one clone on average per megabase (Mb) for 23 of the 24 human chromosomes. The addition of these landmarks to the draft genome sequence has aided in the detection and molecular characterization of chromosome abnormalities that cause human disease. Each clone is available as single-colony purified bacterial stock through one of three distributors: BACPAC

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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