Isolates with biochemical characteristics typical of Salmonella should be serogrouped by agglutination with polyvalent or monovalent antisera. Three kinds of surface antigens, namely, O and phase 1 and phase 2 H antigens are detected by agglutination by antigen-specific antisera in slide and tube agglutination tests. Although complete O-serotyping is used for identification, most laboratories examine only agglutination reactions to differentiate into groups O2(A), O4(B), O7(C), O9(D), O3,10(E1), and several other groups. S. Enteritidis, which causes gastroenteritis, and S. Typhi, which causes typhoid fever, are both in the O9 group. Similarly, another cause of gastroenteritis, S. Typhimurium, and S. Paratyphi B, another cause of enteric fever, are both in the O4 group. Classical methods that rely on cultivation and biochemical tests for detecting Salmonella are time-consuming and often labor-intensive. In addition, for serotyping, antibodies must be produced for each serovar, which is extremely complex and time-consuming. Easier and more rapid methods are needed to identify Salmonella serovars and these are now available.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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