Infectious Disease Applications

Microarray technology can have a broad range of applications in infectious disease. For example, Bekal et al. examined the pathogenic potential of different Escherichia coli strains using conventional microarrays.1-21-1 The DNA products from the PCR amplification of 105 virulence factors were spotted onto glass slides. Fluorescently labeled genomic DNA from different strains was hybridized to the arrays, allowing the detection of virulence genes and the potential to identify emerging pathotypes. In addition, detection and genotyping of rotaviruses have been performed with genotype-specific oligonucleotides immobilized on glass slides.[22] Standard microarrays have also been effective in the detection and subtyping of influenza viruses.[23,24]

These standard microarray experiments demonstrate the ability to query a sample against multiple strain- or genotype-specific probes—a primary goal in epidemiolog-ical studies. In the clinical laboratory setting, however, the testing situation may differ slightly. Patients typically present with symptoms that could be indicative of any one of a defined set of pathogenic agents. The goal of the clinical laboratory is to quickly identify which pathogen is responsible for the symptoms and to determine whether the pathogen is resistant to standard antibacterial or antiviral treatments. The number of patients to be examined varies seasonally and can be quite large in some months. For clinical testing of these patients, the ideal tool would enable the screening of multiple patient samples for a specific panel of pathogens, e.g., those causing respiratory illness. Electronic microarrays provide the flexibility required to perform these types of assays— multiple samples can be analyzed for the presence of a panel of pathogens, and genes conferring resistance can be analyzed simultaneously. The specific infectious agents being tested can be varied as necessary by substituting the amplification primers and reporter probes. Multiplex experiments using electronic microarrays have differentiated samples containing E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Staphylococcus aureus,[25] and have differentiated 12 species of mycobacteria in 270 patient samples (M. Sanguinetti et al., Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, unpublished observations). The ability to use electronic microarrays to amplify and detect a panel of organisms and to quickly assess resistance should provide the clinical laboratory with a powerful tool for identifying the causative agents of a wide range of infectious diseases.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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