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Fig. 3 Sequence of oligonucleotide primers that can be used for the amplification of the FIX coding region, including spice junctions. Recommended PCR conditions: 2 mM mixed dNTP; 2.5 U Amplitaq Gold DNA polymerase; 1 x Amplitaq Gold buffer including 2.5 mM MgCl2, 20 pmol/pL each primer, 100-ng template DNA, all amplified using a 35-cycle PCR (30 sec each step) and annealed using a stepdown protocol (five cycles each of 62°C, 60°C, 58°C, 54°C, 52°C, and 50°C).

Fig. 3 Sequence of oligonucleotide primers that can be used for the amplification of the FIX coding region, including spice junctions. Recommended PCR conditions: 2 mM mixed dNTP; 2.5 U Amplitaq Gold DNA polymerase; 1 x Amplitaq Gold buffer including 2.5 mM MgCl2, 20 pmol/pL each primer, 100-ng template DNA, all amplified using a 35-cycle PCR (30 sec each step) and annealed using a stepdown protocol (five cycles each of 62°C, 60°C, 58°C, 54°C, 52°C, and 50°C).

track a disease-causing allele through a family. There are a number of polymorphisms throughout the factor IX gene that are used for linkage analysis. Intron 1 contains a complex polymorphic region (Ddel polymorphism) with two common variants and several rarer alleles.[17] In addition, there are 11 diallelic polymorphisms that can be used for linkage analysis.[15] All polymorphic sites are in linkage disequilibrium with each other although the frequencies considerably vary with ethnic origin.

Linkage studies are dependent on the availability of samples from family members, and may not be informative in all cases. Carrier analysis by linkage may not be suitable where there is no previous family history.

Prenatal Diagnosis

Prenatal diagnostic testing can be provided for carriers of hemophilia B where a causative mutation has been identified or informative linkage markers determined. Fetal cells are generally obtained by chorionic villus sampling at 10-13 weeks of gestation or from amniocentesis at 16-18 weeks.[14,15]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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