D104»c 0.02-0.9 min Bacteriophage Cattle and sheep (C, D), horse, mule, and birds (C)

home-prepared foods, but occasionally commercial products are involved.

Infant Botulism

Infant botulism is an infection that may follow the in vivo outgrowth and toxigenesis from C. botulinum spores.[8] Infant botulism affects small children under 1 year of age, and is typically because of group I C. botulinum. Prolonged constipation, followed by distinctive flaccid paralysis that is manifested by impaired feeding, facial muscle paralysis, and general weakness, is typical. The symptoms of infant botulism may vary from a self-limiting constipation to unexpected death of a child, in which case it is occasionally misdiagnosed as sudden infant death syndrome.[8,9] The case fatality rate is less than 2%.[10] The only foodstuff associated with infant botulism is honey, which may carry a high number of C. botulinum spores.[3,11] Dust and other environmental materials seem to be important sources of spores.[8,9]

Other Forms of Botulism

Wound botulism is mainly found among injecting drug abusers using contaminated needles or impure heroin.[12] Wound botulism is an infection that develops when C. botulinum spores germinate and grow in profound wounds or abscesses. The clinical picture is similar to food-borne botulism, with the absence of gastrointestinal signs. The median incubation period is 7 days. The estimated case fatality rate is 15%.[7]

The adult form of infectious botulism is rare and resembles infant botulism in its pathogenesis and clinical status.[13] People with altered intestinal flora because of abdominal surgery, prolonged antimicrobial treatment, or gastrointestinal wounds and abscesses may be affected.

Because a patient history of ingestion of toxic foods has typically not been found, the diagnosis of classical food-borne intoxication may be excluded.

Inhalation botulism may result from aerosolization of BoNT, and a few human cases have been reported.[14] Iatrogenic botulism with local or generalized weakness is rare and has been reported to develop as a consequence of therapeutic injection of BoNT.[15]

Management of Botulism

Preventive measures against food-borne botulism include proper handling, effective heat processing,1-16-1 and continuous cold storage of foods. The treatment of all forms of botulism basically involves the use of a therapeutic trivalent antitoxin and intensive symptomatic treatment, particularly respiratory support.[17] In wound botulism, the treatment additionally consists of surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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