Info

sefA, fliC

Soumet et al.[8]

Dublin

rfbE, fliC

Itoh et al.[11]

Galinarum-Pullorum

rfbE, fliC

Itoh et al.[11]

identification of S. Typhi in these methods, other Salmonella serotypes can also be amplified. Multiplex PCR detecting two or more genes is now thought to be a more specific method for PCR identification. Recently, specific identification of S. Typhi by multiplex PCR, which targets the rfbE, viaB and fliC-d genes, has been reported, and this method correctly identified S. Typhi and differentiated S. Typhi from other S. enterica serovars with similar antigenic formulae.[6] This system enabled us to identify and differentiate S. Typhi from S. Paratyphi A, both clinically important serovars in human infections, by only a single PCR on bacteria isolated from blood or stool culture. A similar method for specific detection of S. Typhimurium has also been developed.[7] The antigenic formula of S. Typhimurium is O antigen (O4), phase 1 (H1) antigen (H:i), and phase 2 (H2) antigen (H:1,2). Three primer sets were designed for three genes—rfbJ, fliC-i, and fljB-1,2—encoding O:4, H:i, and H:1,2 antigens, respectively, and these were used in a multiplex PCR to identify S. Typhimu-rium. In another PCR, sefA and fliC genes were used as specific targets for S. Typhimurium.[8] PCRs for identification of S. Enteritidis, S. Dublin and S. Galinarum-Pullorum have also been developed.[8-11] Similarly, specific detection of Salmonella spp. has also been reported, and Salmonella spp. is detected by invA, stn, phoQ, hin, fliC-i, and spaQ genes with multiplex PCR or real-time PCR.[12-15]

The whole genome sequences of S. serovar Typhimurium LT2 and S. serovar Typhi CT18 have been determined and have been published in 2001. The whole genomic sequence data will make it possible to develop better diagnosis methods that are based on DNA.[16'17]

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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