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Amino acid abbreviations are standard symbols. Dm is mass difference associated with the modification (in daltons).

Amino acid abbreviations are standard symbols. Dm is mass difference associated with the modification (in daltons).

component and subsequent database searches (e.g., http:// us.expasy.org/tools/glycomod/). In addition, sequential exoglycosidase treatments can be used to release individual residues from complex carbohydrate chains to identify the structure. A detailed discussion on all techniques used to investigate the structural composition of complex carbohydrates is beyond the scope of this contribution.

Other posttranslational modifications occurring (such as acetylation, acylation, carboxylation, methylation, etc.) cannot be discussed in sufficient detail in the scope of this contribution. Table 2 provides an overview of common PTMs and their function, as well as associated changes in mass. For a review, the reader is referred to the scientific literature.[8]

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