Fig. 1 Southern hybridization of genomic DNA from V. cholerae O139 strains digested with Bgl! and probed with a 7.5-kb BamHI fragment of the E. coli rRNA clone pKK 3535. Restriction pattern corresponding to ribotypes derived from strains is shown in lanes 1 and 2 (B-I), lanes 3 and 4 (B-II), and lane 5 (B-IV), and a new ribotype (B-VI) derived from V. cholerae O139 strain ALO95 isolated from a diarrheal patient is shown in lane 5. (From Ref. [12]. Courtesy of ASM Press, New York.)

element in the chromosome, giving rise to new clones possibly by natural selection involving unidentified environmental factors and immunity of the host.

Ribotype analysis of O139 strains isolated until 2001 showed diverse ribotype patterns[7] and, since then, one more ribotype has been detected[12] (Fig. 1). Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of clonal diversity in O139 strains showed that PFGE patterns were highly similar but nonidentical with minor differences in banding patterns of NotI restriction patterns. This study suggested that although O139 had a cloned origin, this serogroup is undergoing changes in a manner analogous to that seen among the El Tor strains.[13] Studies on clonality of clinical and environmental V. cholerae O1, O139, non-O1, and non-O139 groups by using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC) PCR, box element PCR, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and PFGE collectively indicated that V. cholerae O1 and O139 had a clonal origin, whereas the non-O1 and non-O139 strains belonged to different clones. The clinical isolates resembled environmental isolates in their genomic patterns, suggesting that aquatic environments are reservoirs for V. cholerae.[5] It was also shown that the multiple clones of V. cholerae O139, identical to those of O139 that caused an epidemic in 1992, were present in the aquatic environment.1-14-1

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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