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Fig. 2 Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction products in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of autopsy and biopsy origin for b-actin gene. (A) RT-PCR analysis for b-actin gene (77 bp). Size marker (lanel), biopsy samples (lanes 2-5), autopsy samples (lanes 6-9), positive control (RT-PCR analysis in RNA obtained from HepG2 cells) (lane 10). (B) RT-PCR analysis for b-actin gene (100 bp). Size marker (lane1), biopsy samples (lanes 2-5), autopsy samples (lanes 6-9), positive (lane 10). (C) RT-PCR analysis for b-actin gene (120 bp). Size marker (lane1), biopsy samples (lanes 2-5), autopsy samples (lanes 6-9), positive control (lane 10). (D) RT-PCR analysis for b-actin gene (170 bp). Size marker (lane1), biopsy samples (lanes 2-5), autopsy samples (lanes 6-9), positive control (lane 10).

general consensus on using a single control gene for normalization purposes. In more than 90% of the cases reported in the literature,[11] GAPDH, p-actin, 18S, and 28S rRNA were used as a single control gene. Different authors have already reported that housekeeping gene expression can vary considerably, so the validity of the conclusions is highly dependent on the control used.[11] Vandesompele et al. strongly recommend the use of at least three control genes for calculating the normalization factor in order to remove nonspecific variation of target genes. Nowadays, there are several analytical approaches to measure the amount of RT-PCR product in archival tissues, including real-time RT-PCR,[12] membrane hybridization/13,1^ capillary electrophoresis,[14,15] PCR-ELISA.[16] All of them are suitable for relative quantification in paraffin-embedded tissues of necropsy origin reducing the amplicon size to less than 100 bp.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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