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Fig. 1 Partial global proteome map of B. melitensis 16M. The map is a manually seamed, composite image of four narrow pH range 2-D gels, each containing 40-120 mg total protein extracted from chloroform-killed cultures of B. melitensis 16M. Gels were stained with SYPRO® Ruby for 12 hr before imaging under 470-nm light. (From Ref. [11].) (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

Fig. 2 Graphical representation of sequenced chromosomes 1 and 2 of B. melitensis 16M (top) and expressed ORFs categorized into major cellular functions (bottom). The colored spheres on chromosomes 1 and 2 represent the proteome under laboratory conditions. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

Fig. 2 Graphical representation of sequenced chromosomes 1 and 2 of B. melitensis 16M (top) and expressed ORFs categorized into major cellular functions (bottom). The colored spheres on chromosomes 1 and 2 represent the proteome under laboratory conditions. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

were noted. One major pathway associated with the survival of pathogens inside the host cell is that regulating iron metabolism. During infection, a macrophage reduces iron by producing chelating agents and actively exporting iron from the phagosome where the pathogen multiplies. In response, the pathogen synthesizes proteins designed to compete with the host for iron. One such protein is bacterioferritin whose accumulation is significantly greater in the vaccine strain Rev1 than in the virulent strain 16M. Likewise, Rev1 overexpressed an iron-regulated outer membrane protein and an iron (III)-binding periplasmic proteins which are normally derepressed during low iron availability. Such a misregulated system leads to unnecessary expenditure of energy and as a consequence Rev1 upregulated other energy-generating pathways, i.e., p-oxidation of fatty acids and protein synthesis to generate more reducing equivalents for the production of ATP. The significant accumulation of enoyl coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase and acyl-CoA dehydroge-nase in Rev1 indicated the upregulation of fatty acid metabolism. Both enzymes are involved in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA that consequently enters the TCA cycle. Further metabolic pathway analysis will unravel more phenotypic differences including virulence and host preference among the various nomen species of Brucella.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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