and A are within Forster distance of one another, the D/A emission ratio decreases as D transfers a fraction of its excitation state energy to A, causing less fluorescence emission from D and more fluorescence emission from A. In cases when A is a fluorescence quencher, proximity between D and A simply results in decreased emission from D.
Binding reactions between two molecular entities (receptor-ligand; antibody-antigen; transcription factor-DNA sequence) respectively labeled with a donor and an acceptor can be quantified by FRET. The labeling can be direct (via covalent modification of the molecules of interest) or indirect (i.e., via noncovalent binding of a labeled antibody or other binding moiety). Binding will result in energy transfer from the donor to the acceptor (Fig. 3A).
proximity of two molecules (or two portions of the same molecule) respectively labeled with D and A.
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The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.