Information Flow Through a Cell

Proteomics is considered the characterization of the entire cellular protein content. This broad categorization of cellular proteins may not yield immediate, clinically useful information because protein function is closely related to specific cell-cell interactions and the cellular microenvironment. Proteins relay information from the extracellular environment through a series of complex protein-protein interactions, allowing protein complexes to coalesce, then dissolve after the signal is gone, or by changing the shape of a receptor protein. As an example, some types of signaling mechanisms are mediated by phosphorylation events, cleavage events, or alteration of a protein's conformation. Characterization of these events may allow the elucidation of the information flow through a cell, which in turn can point to critical nodes or pathways required for cell survival.

Examples of functional proteomic information can be found in the phosphorylation states of signaling proteins and the flow of information within a cell and the organism. The ability to discern these specific interactions, or pathways, is a goal of clinical proteomics. The utility of protein microarrays is expected to be their ability to recapitulate the in vivo cellular signaling network, based on specific phosphorylation events, at any given point in time for a cell population.1-1-13-1 Specific protein phosphorylation events are just one example of many types of posttranslational modifications that may affect information flow through a cell. Information concerning protein posttranslational modifications is not reflected in gene microarrays. Completion of a detailed protein network map, even for a subset of cellular processes or critical nodes comprising a network, coupled with detailed genomic and biologic insights, is expected to lead to the design of treatment targeted toward a specific cellular pathway or pathways.[14,15]

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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