Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive bacterium that typically grows as lancet-shaped pairs of diplococci. All pathogenic strains are surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule that allows the bacterium to evade phagocytosis, thereby delaying clearance.

There are more than 90 capsular serotypes of S. pneumoniae and the distribution of each serotype varies with age and geography. Nasopharyngeal carriage of S. pneumoniae is common, especially in young children where rates of 40-50% are frequently observed. Carriage occurs in approximately 10-30% of adults at any one time.

S. pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia, otitis media, and sinusitis. It is also an important cause of primary bacteremia and meningitis. Less common infections with S. pneumoniae include endocarditis, peritonitis, and osteomyelitis.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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