Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have several advantageous features as gene delivery vehicles. Adeno-associated virus does not cause disease or malignancy in any animal species. Adeno-associated virus vectors do not contain viral genes that could elicit undesirable cellular immune responses and appear not to induce inflammatory responses. Adeno-associated virus vectors can mediate long-term gene expression when administered in vivo. They may be best suited for infrequent delivery so that any potential host antibody response to the AAV capsid protein may be less inhibitory. An AAV vector has progressed to phase II trials in cystic fibrosis patients and other AAV vectors have now entered phase I trials for several other clinical indications. The earlier work on AAV vectors and all the current clinical trials used AAV serotype 2 as a prototype. Expanded understanding of AAV biology and other serotypes likely will lead to many more clinical applications of AAV gene therapies in the next several years. Several extensive reviews of the literature are available.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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