Introduction

Electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensors have been a major research field for over a decade, because their rapid, simple, and low-cost detection capabilities provide several advantages to clinical, forensic, and environmental monitoring. Basically, DNA biosensors convert the Watson-Crick base-pair recognition event into a readable analytical signal. A DNA biosensor is prepared by the immobilization of a single-stranded (ss) oligonucleotide (probe) onto a transducer surface to recognize its complementary (target) DNA sequence via hybridization. The DNA duplex formed on the electrode surface is called a hybrid. This binding event is then converted into an electrochemical signal by the transducer. The most important advantage of utilizing electrochemistry for transducing hybridization is its suitability for microfabrication. Thus compact, user-friendly, and handheld devices can easily be designed by combining electrochemistry and microfabrication.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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