Introduction

This article examines what it means to patent a gene. Numerous ethical concerns have been raised about the effects of such patents on clinical medical practice, as well as on research and development. I describe what kinds of inventions are covered by human gene patents, give examples, and summarize the small body of empirical research performed in the United States that examines the effects of these patents. There is little evidence that early fears about restraining research and constraining the promises of genetic medicine will come to fruition. Nonetheless, there are areas of concern, and policy makers, physicians, and the public should keep their eyes on how genetic patents are being used to ensure that the net social benefits of patenting human genes are maintained.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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