Introduction

Echinococcosis (hydatid diseases) is a near-cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by adult or larval stages of dog tapeworms (cestodes) belonging to the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae). The two major species of medical and public health importance are Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis that, respectively, cause cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE). Both CE and AE are serious and severe diseases, the latter especially so, with high fatality rates and poor prognosis if managed incorrectly. Molecular techniques are proving of value in the study of both CE and AE, in particular for investigating genetic variation in the causative organisms, for the detection of parasite nucleic acids in clinical samples, and in the identification of Echinococcus eggs. Detecting minute amounts of parasite DNA and mRNA, not only to identify but also to characterize the biological status of parasite material, is becoming recognized as a powerful complementary method to conventional methods such as immunodiagnosis.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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