Introduction

Clostridium botulinum is a bacterium that is widely spread in the environment and in raw foods. C. botulinum strains produce lethal neurotoxins during their logarithmic growth. The toxin, when ingested or formed in vivo in humans and animals, causes botulism, a neuroparalytic disease that may lead to death unless treated. The diagnosis of botulism is based on the detection of neurotoxin and C. botulinum organisms in a patient. Conventional diagnostic methods for the detection of C. botulinum and its toxins are poorly developed. However, the use of molecular tools such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods has greatly facilitated the diagnosis of C. botulinum during the last decade.

Anti-Aging Report

Anti-Aging Report

When people generally think about anti-aging, they tend to think about the visible signs of wear and tear, those tell-tale wrinkles, age spots and their developing jowls. No-one wants to get old, let alone feel and look older than their years and anti-aging treatments are becoming so sought after by both men and women that the skincare market is colossal, but what really works?

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