Introduction

Scientists and engineers have borrowed miniaturization, integration, and parallel-processing techniques from the computer industry to develop laboratory devices and procedures that fit on a wafer or microchip. Biochip is a broad term indicating the use of microchip technology in molecular biology and can be defined as arrays of selected biomolecules immobilized on a surface. A micro-array is a collection of miniaturized test sites arranged on a surface that permits many tests to be performed simultaneously, or in parallel, in order to achieve higher throughput. The sample spot sizes in microarray are usually less than 200 mm in diameter. The trend to miniaturization continued with the introduction of micro-fluidic technology. To meet the increasing needs, the density and information content of the microarrays is being improved. One approach is fabrication of chips with smaller, more closely packed features—ultra-high-density arrays, which will yield:

• High information content by reduction of feature size from 200 to 50 nm.

• Reduction in sample size.

• Improved assay sensitivity.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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