One of the most remarkable achievements in medical history is the eradication of smallpox, a once devastating disease that plagued mankind for millennia. Although the Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is the only Orthopoxvirus specific for humans, other zoonotic Orthopoxvirus species, e.g., buffalopox, cowpox, monkeypox, and Vaccinia viruses, can cause disease in humans. Concerns have been raised that Variola may reemerge or other orthopox viruses may be rendered more pathogenic by genetic engineering. Re-emergence of Variola or genetically altered chimeras would pose serious public health threats of global proportions. The recent occurrence of the first monkeypox infection in the Western Hemisphere clearly demonstrates the ease with which zoonotic Orthopoxvirus infections can cross geographic boundaries and species barriers. Evidence exists that altering Orthopoxvirus genome can enhance host susceptibility to infection. For example, it has recently been demonstrated that engineering interleu-kin-4 gene into the mousepox (ectromelia) virus genome induced lethal infection in genetically resistant and vaccinated mice.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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