Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) has long been considered a prototype of connective tissue diseases as it visibly alters the elastic fiber network of skin. Two French physicians, Felix Balzer in 1884 and Marie-Anatole Chauffard just five years later, first described the characteristic skin changes. The first of them also noted ''broken elastic fibers'' on histological specimen of the skin and heart. In his monograph about PXE, Neldner summarizes in 1988 that ''in both cases, efforts to indict the liver, often the target of blame for poor health amongst the French, were unsuccessful, although it was still a suspect.'' With the advent of molecular genetic research in general and the recent detection of the hepatic transmembrane transporter protein MRP6 as the affected gene product in particular, the suspicion of the French physicians was proven correct about 100 years later.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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