Alloantibodies against platelet antigens play an important role in immune-mediated platelet disorders. There are essentially three clinical conditions caused by platelet alloantibodies: platelet transfusion refractoriness, neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), and posttransfusion purpura. In NAIT, fetal thrombocytopenia is caused by maternal alloimmunization against antigens on fetal platelets, a condition which may result in life-threatening complications. Typing of the human platelet antigens can be useful for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Typing of human platelet antigens is also important for the study of the association of human platelet antigens with an increased probability of developing various diseases. Recently, several studies indicated that polymorphisms underlying platelet antigens might represent genetic risk factors for coronary thrombosis.

In the past two decades platelets were characterized by serological antigen capture assays, such as the monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigens. The introduction of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology for amplification of platelet-specific mRNA made the characterization of platelet alloantigens possible at the molecular level and opened the doors for the development of new typing techniques. All but one of the different allelic forms of the human platelet antigens were the result of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes encoding the relevant platelet proteins (see below).

In this review, an overview of various genotyping techniques will be presented. New techniques which make human antigen genotyping even more convenient will also be discussed.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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