Advances in molecular medicine and biology have fundamentally changed biomedical research strategies. For example, the development of the DNA microarray technology, in conjunction with the completion of the human genome sequencing project, now enables researchers to analyze many human genes, in a highly parallel manner, on both the DNA and RNA levels. As a consequence, the rate of discovery of new genes involved in cancer and other diseases has increased significantly. However, a major drawback of the DNA array technology is the need for unfixed tissues and its enormous expense, which hampers comprehensive studies including statistically relevant sample sizes. In addition, such kinds of analyses require disintegrated tissues, obliterating information on the tissue distribution of marker molecules. Therefore, evaluation of the clinical importance of promising candidate genes is optimally performed using histological sections of diseased and nondiseased patient tissues. However, hundreds to thousands of tissue samples, optimally with attached follow-up data, must be analyzed to yield statistically sound results. This leads to a massive workload in involved pathology laboratories. Moreover, the analysis of multiple genes results in a critical loss of precious tissue material because the number of conventional tissue sections that can be taken from a tumor block usually does not exceed 200-300. To overcome the limitations of conventional tissue analysis, we developed the tissue microarray (TMA) technology, which significantly facilitates and accelerates in situ analyses. In this method, minute tissue cylinders (diameter: 0.6 mm) are removed from hundreds of different primary tumor blocks and subsequently brought into one empty ''recipient'' paraffin block. Sections from such array blocks can then be used for simultaneous in situ analysis of hundreds to thousands of primary tumors on DNA, RNA, and protein levels.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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