Introduction

The genus Borrelia comprises approximately 40 species that belong to the family Spirochaetaceae. Borreliae are vector-borne pathogens that cause Lyme disease and relapsing fever in humans, and spirochetosis/borreliosis in birds, cattle, sheep, and horses. Louse-borne relapsing fever epidemics appear to be decreasing over the years, with occasional outbreaks still occurring in parts of Africa. Endemic tick-borne relapsing fever still surfaces regularly in the Americas and Europe, although the number of reported cases remains low. Lyme disease, on the other hand, appears to be rapidly spreading on a global scale. This may be due to the ''promiscuous'' nature of Lyme borreliae, which have a wide variety of reservoirs and vectors compared to relapsing fever Borrelia species. While there are relatively few fatalities associated with Lyme disease or relapsing fever, significant morbidities can result from both, especially in the case of Lyme disease, in which chronic infection can last for years. An early and accurate diagnosis of either disease is extremely important, considering that both diseases respond well to early administration of antimicrobial agents. While a clinical diagnosis of relapsing fever can be relatively simple based on recurring febrile events, it is still confounded by the rarity of the disease, which often leaves it out of differential diagnoses (particularly in nonendemic areas). Diagnosing Lyme disease poses a particularly daunting challenge because of the protean manifestations of the disease, the variable stages of the disease, and the lack of sensitive, specific, and accurate diagnostic tools. Although the disease syndrome still relies on clinical findings for diagnosis, with confirmation by serological testing, molecular testing is proving to be sensitive and specific. Such tests are gradually gaining acceptance, and new molecular techniques may, in combination with serology, provide better insights into both diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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