Introduction

Microarrays, or generally bioarrays, can be defined as the simultaneous assaying of a biological target sample interacting with a large number of biomolecule probes positioned in a gridlike layout on a physical substrate.

Like its forerunners dot blotting and cDNA filter arrays, microarray technology exploits complementary binding properties of biomolecules. As opposed to these forerunners, microarray technology is highly parallel in terms of the number of bioprobes that can be assayed simultaneously under a given experimental condition, and provides high throughput in terms of the number of experimental conditions that can be investigated in a relatively short time. The current level of microarray technology has been enabled through the combined use of robotics, miniaturization, labeling approaches, and image processing hardware and software.

Microarrays are redefining vast areas of experimental and applied sciences, from gene expression analysis to combinatorial chemistry and protein expression analysis. Although DNA microarray technology is now relatively mature and gene expression analysis a more widely used tool than protein expression analysis, it involves the assumption that mRNA levels correlate well with protein expression levels. However, because a gene may transcribe multiple mRNA sequences depending on splicing, polyadenylation or editing, and because translation of a sequence can lead to protein, which undergoes a variety of posttranslational modifications (such as phosphorylation, glycosylation, or lipidation), predictions of protein expression levels from mRNA expression are subject to some restrictions. Consequently, there has been an increasing interest in the direct, systematic measurement of protein expression levels.

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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