The phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was first described by Theodor Forster in 1948. Since then, FRET has become an incredibly useful tool in biology for three reasons: 1) FRET is really sensitive in the range of 100 A and below, the scale at which transactions between biological macromolecules and complexes occur; 2) the instrumentation is extremely sensitive and is readily amenable to miniaturization, high throughput, and automation; and 3) cell permeable and genetically encodable FRET probes enable the real-time quantitation of dynamic cellular processes in live cells. In this chapter, we introduce the reader to the photophysics underlying FRET and present a brief general overview of the types of biological measurements enabled by the technique. Readers are referred to other chapters in the Encyclopedia for more detailed coverage of specific diagnostic applications of FRET (see for instance ''Molecular Beacons, 5' Nuclease Oligoprobes'').

Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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