Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae and is closely related to both Japanese encephalitis (JEV) and West Nile (WNV) viruses. It is endemic in tropical areas of Australia and causes severe encephalitis with high mortality and morbidity. The earliest recorded outbreaks of arboviral encephalitis occurred along the east coast of Australia between 1917 and 1925, and was then given the name Australian X disease. It was not named Murray Valley encephalitis until an outbreak occurred in that region in 1951, at which time MVEV was isolated. A major outbreak centered on the Murray Valley region then occurred in 1974, with cases subsequently being identified in all mainland states of Australia. Although the vast majority of these cases were due to MVEV, some were found to have been caused by another flavivirus, Kunjin (KUNV). The term Australian encephalitis was coined to include disease caused by either virus, but due to confusion over that terminology, it is now preferred that they are called MVEV encephalitis or KUNV encephalitis.

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Getting Started With Dumbbells

Getting Started With Dumbbells

The use of dumbbells gives you a much more comprehensive strengthening effect because the workout engages your stabilizer muscles, in addition to the muscle you may be pin-pointing. Without all of the belts and artificial stabilizers of a machine, you also engage your core muscles, which are your body's natural stabilizers.

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